Context[ edit ] There was never a set of principles defining manifest destiny, therefore it was always a general idea rather than a specific policy made with a motto. Ill-defined but keenly felt, manifest destiny was an expression of conviction in the morality and value of expansionism that complemented other popular ideas of the era, including American exceptionalism and Romantic nationalism.
Manifest Destiny Goes Abroad Click here for a printer-friendly version In the closing years of the 19th century, the United States began to emerge as a world power. With the conquest of North America nearly complete, attitudes in the U. The changes, wrought by the industrial revolution and evolving social norms, contributed to a new willingness to engage in imperialistic expansion.
This new version of Manifest Destiny arose from strategic and economic concerns and appeals to religious and emotional sentiments.
Ninety miles off the southern coast of Florida, the people of the island nation of Cuba were engaged in a decades-long struggle against their Spanish colonial masters. After several failed attempts to control the insurgents, the Spanish government reacted by sending a new military commander to Cuba to conduct a brutal crackdown on the independence movement.
Captain-General Valeriano Weyler attempted to isolate the rebels from the population by herding women, children, and old people from the countryside into detention camps and garrisoned towns, causing the death of thousands of civilians from disease and starvation.
They portrayed the war in Cuba as a struggle between the "butcher" Weyler and high-minded patriots struggling bravely for freedom from Old World authoritarianism.
As the situation grew worse, recently elected President William McKinley tried to avoid war with Spain. The ship lay at anchor in Havana harbor from January until February 15, when a large explosion rocked the Maine, killing U.
Sailors and sending the ship to the bottom. Sensational and wildly inaccurate reporting on the part of several American newspapers stirred public opinion to a fevered pitch.
By the end of April, both sides had declared war and open hostilities began. Army was little prepared for war. During the quarter of a century precedingthe Army averaged only about 26, officers and men, most of who were scattered widely across the country in company and battalion-size organizations.
The Army had little training or experience in the operations requiring units larger than a regiment, had no mobilization plan, lacked a well-organized command staff, and had no experience in joint operations with the U.
War fever soon led Congress to authorize a rapid increase in the size of the Army. Most of these men, regulars and volunteers, had little or no prior military experience. The loosely conceived U.
Planners believed that this would eventually lead the Spanish to surrender, at which point American forces could come ashore and take over without ever having to fire a shot. But by mid-Aprilthe public demand for action was too strong to ignore, and Secretary of War Russell M.
Alger ordered the regular infantry regiments to move to New Orleans, Tampa, and Mobile and prepare for an immediate assault on Cuba. Meanwhile, the Navy moved quickly to engage the Spanish fleet in the Philippines.
In less than two months, the Spanish fleet was destroyed and the Philippines declared independence from Spain. The heat, humidity, and tropical diseases took their toll as the Soldiers began attacking against strong defensive Spanish positions. Theodore Roosevelt, a Lieutenant-Colonel at the time, became famous for leading the 1st U.
Short on supplies and under heavy pressure, the Spanish realized that their defeat was imminent. The Spanish fleet in Santiago hastily attempted to flee to the open sea, but was intercepted and destroyed by the U.
On July 16, Spanish commanders in Cuba signed the unconditional terms of surrender demanded by the McKinley administration. The terms provided for the surrender of 11, troops in Santiago and 12, more in the general vicinity of the city.
A formal surrender ceremony took place on the following day. As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States would enter the 20th century as a global colonial power. American Military History, Volume 1. Army Center of Military History.A Note and a disclaimer. The Note: This great book should really be read by monstermanfilm.com is difficult to describe why it so great because it both teaches and inspires.
You really just have to read it. The Manifest Destiny - The Manifest Destiny is the idea of continental expansion by the United States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, which naturally occurred out of a deep want and need to explore and conquer new lands and establish new borders.
Chapter Seizing an American Empire, After the Spanish-American War, the United States adopted the Open Door policy toward China. This pronouncement included which of the following goals?
in alignment with the principle of manifest destiny. After the Civil War, a small group of American leaders began to advocate for.
To what extent was racism involved in the idea of Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War? Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines (for which the United States compensated Spain $20 million, equivalent to $ million in present-day terms), were ceded by Spain after the Spanish–American War in the Treaty of Paris.
The term Manifest Destiny fell out of use after the U.S. Civil War, in part to racist overtones of the concept, but it returned again in the s to justify American intervention in the Cuban rebellion against Spain.