The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. Inthe Boers began an exodus into African tribal territory, where they founded the republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The two new republics lived peaceably with their British neighbors untilwhen the discovery of diamonds and gold in the region made conflict between the Boer states and Britain inevitable. Visit Website Minor fighting with Britain began in the s, and in October full-scale war ensued.
After Britain annexed Natal inthey journeyed further northwards into South Africa's vast eastern interior. There they established two independent Boer republics: Britain recognised the two Boer republics in andbut attempted British annexation of the Transvaal in led to the First Boer War in — After Britain suffered defeats, particularly at the Battle of Majuba Hillthe independence of the two republics was restored subject to certain conditions; relations, however, remained uneasy.
In diamonds were discovered at Kimberley The causes of the boer war, prompting a diamond rush and a massive influx of foreigners to the borders of the Orange Free State. Then ingold was discovered in the Witwatersrand area of the South African Republic.
Gold made the Transvaal the richest nation in southern Africa; however, the country had neither the manpower nor the industrial base to develop the resource on its own. As a result, the Transvaal reluctantly acquiesced to the immigration of uitlanders foreignersmainly English-speaking men from Britain, who came to the Boer region in search of fortune and employment.
This resulted in the number of uitlanders in the Transvaal potentially exceeding the number of Boers, and precipitated confrontations between the earlier-arrived Boer settlers and the newer, non-Boer arrivals. Britain's expansionist ideas notably propagated by Cecil Rhodes as well as disputes over uitlander political and economic rights resulted in the failed Jameson Raid of Leander Starr Jamesonwho led the raid, intended to encourage an uprising of the uitlanders in Johannesburg.
However, the uitlanders did not take up arms in support, and Transvaal government forces surrounded the column and captured Jameson's men before they could reach Johannesburg. Given the British origins of the majority of uitlanders and the ongoing influx of new uitlanders into Johannesburg, the Boers recognised that granting full voting rights to the uitlanders would eventually result in the loss of ethnic Boer control in the South African Republic.
The June negotiations in Bloemfontein failed, and in September British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain demanded full voting rights and representation for the uitlanders residing in the Transvaal. Paul Krugerthe President of the South African Republic, issued an ultimatum on 9 Octobergiving the British government 48 hours to withdraw all their troops from the borders of both the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, albeit Kruger had ordered Commandos to the Natal border in early September and Britain only had troops in garrison towns far from the border,[ citation needed ] failing which the Transvaal, allied to the Orange Free State, would declare war on the British government.
In the first phase, the Boers mounted preemptive strikes into British-held territory in Natal and the Cape Colony, besieging the British garrisons of LadysmithMafekingand Kimberley. In the second phase, after the introduction of greatly increased British troop numbers under the command of Lord Robertsthe British launched another offensive in to relieve the sieges, this time achieving success.
After Natal and the Cape Colony were secure, Britain was able to invade the Transvaal, and the republic's capital, Pretoriawas ultimately captured in June In the third and final phase, beginning in March and lasting a further two years, the Boers conducted a hard-fought guerrilla war, attacking British troop columns, telegraph sites, railways, and storage depots.
To deny supplies to the Boer guerrillas, the British, now under the leadership of Lord Kitchenerresponded with a scorched earth policy. They cleared whole areas, destroying Boer farms and moving the civilians into concentration camps.
The Boer forces finally surrendered on Saturday, 31 Maywith 54 of the 60 delegates from the Transvaal and Orange Free State voting to accept the terms of the peace treaty. This promise was fulfilled with the creation of the Union of South Africa in The war had a lasting effect on the region and on British domestic politics.The Second Boer War (11 October – 31 May ) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
It is also known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. The causes of the Boer War go back to , when Britain took over the Cape Colony from the Dutch and British troops started to arrive. At first the Dutch settlers, known as Boers, ignored their new governors and moved away from the administrative centres, they were fiercely independent and refused to accept any outside rule or influence.
Boer War: Causes/events.
STUDY. PLAY. Between when was the Boer War? to What was the strategic cause of the Boer War? 1) British had interest in Southern Africa as it formed part of a route to India 2) They didn't want the Boers to ally with German possessions nearby. The Causes of the Boer War, Introduction: The Anglo Boer war is a topic that has been of particular interest to historians, both locally and internationally.
Mar 29, · For the British they were the Boer Wars, for the Boers, the Wars of Independence. Many Afrikaaners today refer to them as the Anglo-Boer Wars to denote the official warring parties.
The first Boer War of has also been named the Transvaal Rebellion, as the Boers of the Transvaal revolted against the British .
The man who was directly responsible for the Boer War of though was not Rhodes but Alfred Milner. Lord Alfred Milner was High Commissioner in South Africa when war broke out in October