History[ edit ] Paper cups have been documented in imperial Chinawhere paper was invented by 2nd century BC.
Bleaching mechanical pulp is not a major cause for environmental concern since most of the organic material is retained in the pulp, and the chemicals used hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite produce benign byproducts water and, eventually, sodium sulfaterespectively.
However, the bleaching of chemical pulps has the potential to cause significant environmental damage, primarily through the release of organic materials into waterways. Pulp mills are almost always located near large bodies of water because they require substantial quantities of water for their processes.
An increased public awareness of environmental issues from the s and s, as evidenced by the formation of organizations like Greenpeaceinfluenced the pulping industry and governments to address the release of these materials into the environment.
Dioxins are highly toxic, and health effects on humans include reproductive, developmental, immune and hormonal problems. They are known to be carcinogenic. Disposing of paper in landfill sites, and subsequent breakdown and production of methane a potent greenhouse gas also adds to the carbon footprint of paper products.
This is another reason why paper recycling is beneficial for the environment.
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Kaolin is the most commonly used clay for coated papers. Mitigation[ edit ] Waste paper awaiting recycling in the Netherlands.
Some of the environmental impacts of the pulp and paper industry have been addressed and there is movement towards sustainable practices. Using wood from plantation forests addresses concerns about loss of old growth forests.
Sustainable forest management[ edit ] Cutting down trees to make forest products such as pulp and paper creates temporary or long-term environmental disturbances in forest habitats depending on how carefully the harvest is carried out. There might be impacts on plant and animal biodiversity, soil fertility and water quality.
However, sustainable forest management practices are a way of using and caring for forests so as to maintain their environmental, social and economic values and benefits over time. In Canada, sustainable forest management is supported by a forest management planning process; a science-based approach to decision-making, assessment and planning as well as by regulations and policies.
The forest certification systems that are currently the most used are: Peracetic acidozone  and hydrogen peroxide and oxygen are used in bleaching sequences in the pulp industry to produce totally chlorine free TCF paper.
Paper recycling There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: Pre-consumer waste is material that was discarded before it was ready for consumer use.
Post-consumer waste is material discarded after consumer use such as old magazines, old telephone directories, and residential mixed paper.
Recycling paper decreases the demand for virgin pulp and thus reduces the overall amount of air and water pollution associated with paper manufacture. Recycled pulp can be bleached with the same chemicals used to bleach virgin pulp, but hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrosulfite are the most common bleaching agents.The Soil & Water Assessment Tool is a small watershed to river basin-scale model used to simulate the quality and quantity of surface and ground water and predict the environmental impact of land use, land management practices, and climate change.
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All content is published on an open access basis under a CC BY licence and is free to readers, funded by an article publication charge.. Submit an article. Research Paper Topics on Environment & Water By Michael Stratford; Updated April 25, "The planet is in distress," according to Al Gore, and his statement reflects our abiding responsibilities for the care of the environment and the .
HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission. International Refereed Research Journal This paper provides the insight view about the affects of environment pollution in the perspective of air pollution, water and land/ soil waste pollution on human by diseases and problems, animals and trees/ plants.
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