Most say they want to do more to protect their privacy, but many believe it is not possible to be anonymous online When it comes to their own role in managing the personal information they feel is sensitive, most adults express a desire to take additional steps to protect their data online:
Conceptions of privacy and the value of privacy Discussions about privacy are intertwined with the use of technology. The publication that began the debate about privacy in the Western world was occasioned by the introduction of the newspaper printing press and photography.
Since the publication of that article, the debate about privacy has been fueled by claims for the right of individuals to determine the extent to which others have access to them Westin and claims for the right of society to know about individuals.
The privacy debate has co-evolved with the development of information technology. It is therefore difficult to conceive of the notions of privacy and discussions about data protection as separate from the way computers, the Internet, mobile computing and the many applications of these basic technologies have evolved.
Think here, for instance, about information disclosed on Facebook or other social media. All too easily, such information might be beyond the control of the individual.
Statements about privacy can be either descriptive or normative, depending on whether they are used to describe the way people define situations and conditions of privacy and the way they value them, or are used to indicate that there ought to be constraints on the use of information or information processing.
Informational privacy in a normative sense refers typically to a non-absolute moral right of persons to have direct or indirect control over access to 1 information about oneself, 2 situations in which others could acquire information about oneself, and 3 technology that can be used to generate, process or disseminate information about oneself.
There are basically two reactions to the flood of new technology and its impact on personal information and privacy: The other reaction is that our privacy is more important than ever and that we can and we must attempt to protect it.
In the literature on privacy, there are many competing accounts of the nature and value of privacy. On one end of the spectrum, reductionist accounts argue that privacy claims are really about Privacy risks in the digital age values and other things that matter from a moral point of view.
According to these views the value of privacy is reducible to these other values or sources of value Thomson Proposals that have been defended along these lines mention property rights, security, autonomy, intimacy or friendship, democracy, liberty, dignity, or utility and economic value.
Reductionist accounts hold that the importance of privacy should be explained and its meaning clarified in terms of those other values and sources of value Westin Views that construe privacy and the personal sphere of life as a human right would be an example of this non-reductionist conception.
More recently a type of privacy account has been proposed in relation to new information technology, that acknowledges that there is a cluster of related moral claims cluster accounts underlying appeals to privacy DeCew ; Solove ; van den Hoven ; Allen ; Nissenbaumbut maintains that there is no single essential core of privacy concerns.
A recent final addition to the body of privacy accounts are epistemic accounts, where the notion of privacy is analyzed primarily in terms of knowledge or other epistemic states.
An important aspect of this conception of having privacy is that it is seen as a relation Rubel ; Matheson ; Blaauw with three argument places: Here S is the subject who has a certain degree of privacy. Another distinction that is useful to make is the one between a European and a US American approach.
A bibliometric study suggests that the two approaches are separate in the literature.
The biggest danger in the coming years is not that technology will put free and autocratic societies increasingly at odds with one another. It is that the dystopian visions of George Orwell and Aldous Huxley will become manifest in both types of system. Managers at nonprofits across the U.S. collect and store — in filing cabinets, networked servers and in rented “cloud” space — vast amounts of personal information. And despite the increasing frequency of data breaches affecting public, private and nonprofit organizations, most nonprofit. Digital journalism also known as online journalism is a contemporary form of journalism where editorial content is distributed via the Internet as opposed to publishing via print or monstermanfilm.com constitutes 'digital journalism' is debated by scholars. However the primary product of journalism, which is news and features on current affairs, is presented solely or in combination as text, audio.
In discussing the relationship of privacy matters with technology, the notion of data protection is most helpful, since it leads to a relatively clear picture of what the object of protection is and by which technical means the data can be protected.
At the same time it invites answers to the question why the data ought to be protected. Informational privacy is thus recast in terms of the protection of personal data van den Hoven Examples include date of birth, sexual preference, whereabouts, religion, but also the IP address of your computer or metadata pertaining to these kinds of information.
Personal data can be contrasted with data that is considered sensitive, valuable or important for other reasons, such as secret recipes, financial data, or military intelligence. Data that is used to secure other information, such as passwords, are not considered here.
Although such security measures may contribute to privacy, their protection is only instrumental to the protection of other information, and the quality of such security measures is therefore out of the scope of our considerations here.
A relevant distinction that has been made in philosophical semantics is that between the referential and the attributive use of descriptive labels of persons van den Hoven Personal data is defined in the law as data that can be linked with a natural person.
There are two ways in which this link can be made; a referential mode and a non-referential mode.
In this case, the user of the description is not—and may never be—acquainted with the person he is talking about or wants to refer to. If the legal definition of personal data is interpreted referentially, much of the data about persons would be unprotected; that is the processing of this data would not be constrained on moral grounds related to privacy or personal sphere of life.
Personal data have become commodities. Individuals are usually not in a good position to negotiate contracts about the use of their data and do not have the means to check whether partners live up to the terms of the contract.
Data protection laws, regulation and governance aim at establishing fair conditions for drafting contracts about personal data transmission and exchange and providing data subjects with checks and balances, guarantees for redress. Informational injustice and discrimination: Personal information provided in one sphere or context for example, health care may change its meaning when used in another sphere or context such as commercial transactions and may lead to discrimination and disadvantages for the individual.
Encroachment on moral autonomy: Lack of privacy may expose individuals to outside forces that influence their choices. These formulations all provide good moral reasons for limiting and constraining access to personal data and providing individuals with control over their data.
The basic moral principle underlying these laws is the requirement of informed consent for processing by the data subject. Furthermore, processing of personal information requires that its purpose be specified, its use be limited, individuals be notified and allowed to correct inaccuracies, and the holder of the data be accountable to oversight authorities OECD Digizen - Internet Social Networking advice and guidance for young people, parents and teachers.
Managers at nonprofits across the U.S. collect and store — in filing cabinets, networked servers and in rented “cloud” space — vast amounts of personal information. And despite the increasing frequency of data breaches affecting public, private and nonprofit organizations, most nonprofit.
As companies embrace technologies such as the Internet of Things, big data, cloud, and mobility, security must be more than an afterthought. But in the digital era, the focus needs to shift from.
Levels of privacy. Internet and digital privacy are viewed differently from traditional expectations of privacy.
Internet privacy is primarily concerned with protecting user information. Law Professor Jerry Kang explains that the term privacy expresses space, decision, and information.
In terms of space, individuals have an expectation that their physical spaces (i.e. homes, cars) not be intruded. Is privacy possible in the digital age? These are the darker angels of the digital age. “We know our privacy is under attack,” writes Simson Garfinkel in his excellent and severely under.
Data and research on internet including broadband, telecom, security, privacy, ICTs, openness, Internet economy, e-commerce, consumer policy and e-government., Digitalisation has already been under way for about half a century, yet it is only now that everyone is talking about a digital revolution.
Why? One reason is the spread of faster and better connectivity.