Meyer and Allen created this model for two reasons:
Organ expanded upon Katz's original work. First, OCBs are thought of as discretionary behaviors, which are not part of the job description, and are performed by the employee as a result of personal choice. Second, OCBs go above and beyond that which is an enforceable requirement of the job description.
Finally, OCBs contribute positively to overall organizational effectiveness. At the same time, Organ's definition of OCB has generated a great deal of criticism. The very nature of the construct makes it difficult to operationally define.
Critics started questioning whether or not OCBs, as defined by Organ, were discretionary in nature. Organin response to criticisms, notes that since his original definition, jobs have moved away from a clearly defined set of tasks and responsibilities and have evolved into much more ambiguous roles .
Without a defined role, it quickly becomes difficult to define what is discretionary. Contextual performance[ edit ] OCB has often been compared to contextual performance. Similarly to OCB, this concept emerged in response to the realization that only looking at job specific work behaviors ignored a significant portion of the job domain.
Originally, experts in this field focused only on activities that directly supported the output of the organization. As the job market became more aggressive, it became necessary for employees to go above and beyond that which is formally required by the job description in order to remain competitive.
Contextual performance is defined as non-task related work behaviors and activities that contribute to the social and psychological aspects of the organization .
Contextual performance consists of four elements: OCB and contextual performance share their defining attributes as they both consist of behaviors other than those needed to perform the routine functions of the job.
Both also require that these behaviors contribute to the overall success of the organization.
Additionally, they also agree on the theme that these behaviors are discretionary and each employee chooses the amount and degree to which they will perform them.
However, while contextual performance and OCB share a good part of their content domain, there are some important differences between the two constructs. One of the main requirements of OCBs is that they are not formally rewarded, which is not the case for contextual performance.
Organ contends that OCBs may at some point encourage some sort of reward, but that these rewards would be indirect and uncertain. Also, contextual performance does not require that the behavior be extra-roleonly that it be non-task. The differences between contextual performance and OCB are slight and easy to miss, however, they do exist.
POB is defined as behavior within an organization that is aimed at improving the welfare of an individual, a group or an organization . The important distinction here is that this type of behavior, unlike OCB, can be unrelated to the organization.
Thus, someone exhibiting prosocial behavior could be helping a coworker with personal matter. ERB is defined as "behavior that attempts to benefit the organization and that goes beyond existing role expectations" Organ et al.
Principled organizational dissent is when employees protest the organization because of some kind of injustice Graham,as cited in Organ et al. Both of these ideas contribute to ERB in the sense that their purpose is to further the good of the organization[ citation needed ] and that they are not included in the formal job description.
This again, is a construct very similar to OCB. Altruism and general compliance[ edit ] Smith, Organ, and Near first proposed that OCB is composed of altruism and general compliance.
These two dimensions serve to improve organizational effectiveness in different ways. Altruism in the workplace consists essentially of helping behaviors. These behaviors can both be directed within or outside of the organization. There is no direct link, or one-to-one relationship, between every instance of helping behavior and a specific gain for the organization.
The idea is that over time, the compilation of employees helping behavior will eventually be advantageous for the organization Organ et al. General compliance behavior serves to benefit the organization in several ways. Low rates of absenteeism and rule following help to keep the organization running efficiently.
A compliant employee does not engage in behaviors such as taking excessive breaks or using work time for personal matters. When these types of behaviors are minimized the workforce is naturally more productive.
Later, Organ deconstructed the dimension of general compliance and added additional dimensions of OCB. This deconstruction resulted in a five-factor model consisting of altruism, courtesy, conscientiousnesscivic virtueand sportsmanship. The definition of altruism remained much as it was, defined by discretionary behaviors that have the effect of helping a specific work colleague with an organizationally relevant task or problem.Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality.
Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes. A THREE-COMPONENT CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT John P.
Meyer Natalie J. Alien The University of Western Ontario Diversity in the conceptualization and measurement of organizational com- mitment has made it difficult to interpret the results of an accumulating body of research.
Ilies, R., Judge, T. A., & Wagner, D. T. (). The influence of cognitive and affective reactions to feedback on subsequent goals: Role of behavioral inhibition. In industrial and organizational psychology, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a person's voluntary commitment within an organization or company that is not part of his or her contractual tasks..
Organizational citizenship behavior has been studied since the late s. Over the past three decades, interest in these behaviors has increased . Utrecht University, Dept. of Social & Organizational Psychology, P.O. Box , TC Utrecht, The Netherlands. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.