Home As the earliest form of depth psychology, psychoanalysis is very nearly opposite Behaviorismwhich eschews consideration of mental phenomena. Because the prevailing concern of psychoanalysis is with psychological disorders, some of the earliest descriptions of Personality Disorders were inspired by psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is probably the psychological theory best known by the public. For example, laypersons are familiar with the term "anal retentive.
Northwestern University This paper examines the phenomenon of birth order as it particularly relates to only children. Only children are unique in birth order in that they are the first- and last-born children in their families.
Various theories of prominent psychologists such as Adler, Freud, Skinner, and Eysenck will be examined in their application to the importance of birth order in personality development.
A theory concerning only children will then be presented, dealing chiefly with their difficulty with the labels of introversion and extraversion. Personal observations as well as a proposal for testing the theory will be given.
Procreation has been an essential task for all human beings in order to continue the existence of the species. Before the advent of modern medicine and birth control, common sense would dictate that females would give birth to a large number of children, helping to ensure that at least one would survive to adulthood and thus create children of his or her own.
However, as time has passed, humans have become able to control the number of children they have.
Many choose to have more than one child, some choose to have none at all. Still others choose to have only one. Whatever the decision, the number and order of birth of human offspring seems to have at least a small effect on their personality development. Only children are special cases and must be looked at in a slightly different manner.
Birth Order and Its Repercussions Adler and Birth Order Adler Weiten,best known for his theories regarding striving for superiority, was also concerned with the effects of birth order on personality.
Adler had a successful older brother, but Adler was weak as a child and thus was most likely affected with the desire to assert himself and prove his worth.
He felt that each position in the order, whether first or last, had distinct characteristics. For example, he hypothesized that firstborns are problem children and that only children are likely to be spoiled due to parental overindulgence Weiten,pp. Characteristics of Positions in Birth Order Studies have shown that environment is not the sole personality determinant.
However, environment is not trivial and should be considered, especially because studies regarding birth order have been shown to have some consistency. Firstborns have been shown to be more conscientious, ambitious, academically oriented, conforming, conservative, inclined toward leadership, and respectful of their parents than their later-born siblings.
Conversely, children born later in the birth order tend to be more unconventional, flexible, and rebellious Sulloway,p. Only children, being firstborn themselves, tend to exhibit traits more similar to those of other firstborn children.
However, only children seem to have better self-esteem and are higher achievers than children who have siblings Brophy,p. Children who have siblings must also contend with something that does not affect only children, namely sibling rivalry.
Children who have siblings must compete for parental attention and familial resources. Only children do not have to deal with this kind of competition.
Stereotypes of Only Children The only child is automatically stigmatized. When asked to describe personality characteristics of an only child, many people will respond negatively, indicating the presupposition that only children are spoiled brats.
In China, couples are encouraged to have only one child in order to help curb population growth. These children, or "little emperors," as they have been called, are generally seen as spoiled monsters.
However, research conducted by Falbo Brophy,a psychologist known for work in the area of birth order, indicates otherwise. Falbo found that Chinese only children fared no worse in personality or achievement than their counterparts with siblings.
However, only children are also often seen as high-achieving, motivated, and successful Brophy,p. Social Interaction Because only children lack siblings, they lose the immediate availability of others near their own age with whom to interact socially.
In order to develop normal social skills, only children must be exposed to other children of the same age through other means.Neuroticism is a personality trait involving a long-term tendency to be in a negative or anxious emotional state.
The term neuroses refers to a range of symptoms, behaviors, and psychological. A List Of Unique Personality Psychology Term Paper Topics Very often, choosing a good idea for a unique personality term paper takes more effort than research and writing itself.
Psychology has a very wide range of aspects to explore, as human personality is unique and many-sided; so the variety of topics on this subject is really huge.
Named for James C. Johnson, a founding member of the IPMAAC board, IPAC offers its annual James C. Johnson Student Paper Competition every year to recognize the contributions of students in the field of personnel assessment.
James C. Johnson was a native of Whittier, CA and studied at both the University of Michigan and the University . GRIN Publishing: academic texts, satisfied authors. Publish for free & earn money with your thesis, term paper, presentation, essay.
Personality Definition The term “personality” in the Latin reference means persona, which is like a mask an actor, wears in shows during the Greek or Roman performances (Feist & Feist, ).
The actor superimposes his or her persona to establish an appearance in the characters plot. Term Paper Warehouse has free essays, term papers, and book reports for students on almost every research topic.