Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets.
Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas others demonstrate accelerated forgetting. The present paper indicates that 1 the rate of forgetting for flashbulb memories and event memory memory for details about the event itself slows after a year, 2 the strong emotional reactions elicited by flashbulb events are remembered poorly, worse than non-emotional features such as where and from whom one learned of the attack, and 3 the content of flashbulb and event memories stabilizes after a year.
The results are discussed in terms of community memory practices. In this literature, the term flashbulb memory refers to memory for circumstances in which one learned of the event and would include memories of where, when, and from whom one learned of, for instance, the terrorist attack of September 11, Surprisingly, whereas much is known about how well flashbulb and event memories are retained over a period of approximately a year, much less is known about their long-term retention.
This relative neglect applies not just to the issue of the amount retained, but also to differences in the kind of information that is retained over the long-term and the factors that might affect the level and content of long-term retention. Moreover, although a number of psychological studies have related the level of retention to individual cognitive factors e.
Memory practices may play a role in the retention of flashbulb and event memories given the public nature of the reference event. The present paper, then, focuses on four issues: It explores these issues in the context of the terrorist attack of September 11, Consider the issue of long-term retention.
From the extant research, it is not clear whether forgetting for flashbulb and event memories slows or accelerates after the first year. Three studies suggest that the rate of forgetting of flashbulb memories slows dramatically after the first year. Two of these studies based their conclusions on the vividness or accuracy of flashbulb memories.
Kvavilashvili, Mirani, Schlagman, and Kornbrot found that British citizens reported vivid, confidently held memories of the circumstances under which they learned of the death of Princess Diana, even after a delay of 51 months.
Berntsen and Thomsen discovered that elderly Danes accurately remembered the weather on the day of the German W. II invasion of and withdrawal from Denmark.
Neither of these studies, however, employed a test-retest methodology, in which memories are assessed shortly after the flashbulb event and then after a significant retention interval. Berntsen and Thomsen had verifiable information about the original event, but their documentary methodology does not permit as wide a ranging examination of mnemonic attributes as the test-retest method does.
Relying on public records such as weather reports largely precludes exploring those attributes Brown and Kulik identified as the canonical features of flashbulb memories, for example, who the respondent was with, how the respondent reacted emotionally, or who the informant was.
Bohannon and Symons ; see also Bohannon, conducted the third study, finding a slowing in forgetting, and did employ a test-retest methodology in their investigation of the Challenger explosion, but, in the end, based their conclusions about the rate of forgetting on cross-sectional data.
Two studies did ground their conclusions about long-term retention on the results of test-retests. Unfortunately, Neisser and Harsh employed only one retest in their study of the Challenger explosion, making any analysis of the rate of forgetting difficult.
On the other hand, Schmolck, Buffalo, and Squire used two retests in their study of the announcement of the verdict in the O. At 32 months, the pattern was reversed: These results strongly support the claim that the rate of forgetting increases, rather than slows, over time. Talarico and Rubin suggested that flashbulb memories and ordinary autobiographical memories differ not in their rate of forgetting, but in the confidence with which they are held, with confidence in flashbulb memories remaining high, even as the memories are forgotten.
Confidence in ordinary autobiographical memories declines as the memories are forgotten see also Weaver, Talarico and Rubin, however, only tested retention intervals of eight months or less. A perhaps more general point of comparison would be the forgetting curves obtained in diary studies Rubin, These studies involve the assessment of a wide-range of types of memories over a substantial period.
The forgetting curves collected across studies are remarkably similar, showing rapid forgetting in the first year and then slowing. In the present study, we asked whether the accelerated forgetting Schmolck et al.
We choose the 11 months and 35 months retention intervals because they were in the same time frame used by Schmolck et al. In addition, we also examined the retention of associated event memories at one week, 11 months, and 35 months after the terrorist attack.
The scant relevant literature on event memory is as inconclusive about long-term retention as the literature on flashbulb memories. Neither of these studies examined whether respondents remembered the circumstances in which they learned of the event, making their relevance to the topic of flashbulb memories at best speculative.
There is almost no research comparing memory for emotional reactions with memory for other features of flashbulb memory but see Qin et al.The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, The attacks killed 2, people, injured over 6, others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage.
The request asks for the number of attacks attributed to Al Qaeda in the two-and-a-half years before September 11, , and in the two and a half years afterwards, as well as the total number of attacks by Al Qaeda before September 11, We used the terrorist attacks on September 11, to investigate if the formation, confidence, and nature of flashbulb memories were dependent on age.
In addition, we compared the consistency over time of flashbulb memories with event memory, i.e., widely publicized factual details of the event, in a group of young respondents. The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of .
The terrorist attacks of September 11, , did all of the following EXCEPT: A) kill about 3, people B) turn the lower end of Manhattan into a hellish scene. That was the morning of Tuesday, September 11, The breakfast meeting was scheduled for 8 a.m.
on the th floor of the Windows on the World Restaurant at the World Trade Center. In the spirit of this last story: May God bless Tammy with continued good health, much happiness, and great success in .