In a class-paradigm language such as Java, a class is a template. It is a series of instructions to the operating environment that enable it to construct and use objects.
It literally means to perceive an entity in a system or context from a particular perspective. We take out unnecessary details and only focus on aspects that are necessary to that context or system under consideration.
Here is some good explanation: You as a person have different relationships in different roles. When you are at school, then you are a "Student".
When you are at work, you are an "Employee". When you are at government institution, you can be viewed as a "Citizen". Remember that Abstraction focussing on necessary details is different from Encapsulation hiding details from the outer world. Encapsulation means hiding the details of the object and providing a decent interface for the entities in outer world to interact with that object or entity.
For example, if someone want to know my name then he cannot directly access my brain cells to get to know what is my name. Instead that person will either ask my name. If a driver wants to speed up a vehicle then there is an interface accelerator pedal, gear, etc for that purpose.
The 1st def s not very clear. Def 2 is good but it tends to confuse the newbie as it tries to link Abstraction with Encapsulation and Inheritance.
Def 3 is the best one out of 3 definitions as it clearly defines what is Abstraction precisely.Object-oriented programming, also called OOP, is a model for writing computer programs. Before OOP, most programs were a list of instructions that acted on memory in the computer.
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But, I want to know the meaning of instance. As you said that the object referred to by the variable x is the instance of Something that I instantiated. I want to understand the meaning of instance.