The Apology is closely linked to two other works. The first is the Euthyphrowhich shows Socrates discussing reverence as he is about to report to court for his indictment, an indictment that includes by implication a charge of irreverence. The second is the Critowhich shows Socrates in prison on the day before his execution, defending his decision to accept the penalty rather than corrupt the law by bribing his way out of prison and away from Athens. The Crito argument depends on a principle that is the bedrock of Socratic ethics:
Essays on the Confrontation of Philosophy and Sophistry Published: Essays on the Confrontation of Philosophy and Sophistry, Springer,Issues related to virtue in platos protagoras. As Olof Pettersson points out in the introduction, the study of Plato's defense of philosophy as contrasted with sophistry is an area with growing momentum and with much left unexplored.
Those with a broad interest in Plato or in the Protagoras are likely to find some perspectives and ideas in this volume worth considering, especially in the final contribution by Paul Woodruff. Yet there is relatively little new analysis of the confrontation between philosophy and sophistry.
Plato's Protagoras is indeed an important dialogue for understanding the topic. Its namesake is a famous Greek intellectual and a leading figure of the sophistic movement. The dialogue depicts a lengthy conversation that he has with Socrates, including a series of intriguing methodological twists and dodges.
Plato also uses an intricate framing that explicitly raises the question of what Protagoras really teaches, and implicitly raises the question of what a pupil might learn from Socrates instead.
The majority of contributions in this volume, with a few exceptions discussed below, opt for a traditional reading whereby there is a clear distinction between Plato's Socrates, a moral exemplar with genuine ethical teachings, and Plato's Protagoras, who simply seeks to hide his hypocrisy long enough to receive a paycheck.
Plato himself seems to have been responsible for the negative associations we still have with the word 'sophist', and many interpreters have been quick to see a rather dismissive attitude towards these figures in the dialogues.
Others, however, have highlighted the difficulty of finding a clear-cut contrast that is, beyond the observation that sophists receive payment for their teachings while philosophers don't, a fact that may give pause to those of us in the present-day academy.
Many have been hard pressed to find methodological differences: Some have looked to aim or intent instead, though this too is complicated by the fact that both Socrates and Protagoras seem ready to win the debate by almost any means.
Given these complications in Plato's portrayal, not to mention the underlying historical realities, the traditional assumptions adopted throughout by the majority of the contributors are by no means a given. The book is also unified by a general agreement in its approach to Platonic scholarship.
The authors seek to illuminate the portrayal of Socrates and Protagoras by paying careful attention to details of the dramatic setting. This is a refreshing reminder in a literature that often treats Socrates as a timeless character, born from Plato's pen fully formed with his elenctic armor.
Yet here, as elsewhere in the volume, these important clues are taken a step beyond what evidence warrants in the eyes of this reader.
Socrates' perplexity at the end of the dialogue is then interpreted as his own self-conscious mystification at his transformation into a philosopher These conclusions are hard to square with the historical evidence that Socrates was not the first to engage in this 'Socratic' activity as Woodruff recognizes -- see below and with the aporetic trope found in other dialogues as well.
The emphasis on dramatic context is often, though not always, seen in opposition to an approach that takes into account the success or failure of individual arguments. Along the way he makes some helpful observations.
For instance, he highlights the reputation that Callias has for seeking pleasure, which may indeed affect how we read the discussion of hedonism hosted in his basement In "The Science of Measuring Pleasure and Pain", Cynthia Freeland helpfully cites Jonathan Lavery  in distinguishing between 'Democritean' readings of the Protagoras that treat an individual passage in isolation, and 'Aristotelean' readings that look for the function of the passage within the whole.
Of course this is not an exclusive or exhaustive dichotomy; a good example of a detailed argument reconstruction paired with a sensitivity to the context, and an exception to the general trend of the book, can be found in Hayden W. Ausland carefully parses the argument for the unity of temperance and wisdom, revealing its logical structure while at the same time paying close attention to the rather unintuitive order in which individual premises are secured.
He quite plausibly suggests that the order of argumentation reveals a strategy for securing certain concessions from Protagoras that might not be admitted otherwise. As he puts it, Ausland does not defend a single thesis but rather explores various "philosophical-literary pathways not usually pursued" Nonetheless it is a highlight of the volume for its unique perspective backed by textual evidence as well as for helpful points of engagement with the secondary literature.
He offers a novel reading of the methodological interlude according to which different virtues are thematized from the perspective of different characters Yet some of the matches between a character's contribution and the single virtue given are not entirely straightforward e.
He also provides an interesting note cataloging in some detail the history of the label 'Great Speech' as used in recent English literature to describe Protagoras' initial display. As it turns out, it was first introduced by Vlastos as an English translation of the German 'grosse Rede' though that could just as easily be translated 'long speech', with different connotations While this in itself is unlikely to change one's understanding of the passage, it is helpful to be made conscious of any presuppositions brought to the text based on the labels we use.
Other helpful observations crop up elsewhere as well. Freeland draws attention to a series of interesting places where the idea of measurement appears before the famous art of measurement towards the end of the dialogue, as when Protagoras asks Socrates about the precise length that his speeches should bereferencing Protagoras d6-e3.
Marina McCoy draws some interesting connections between the Protagoras and Aristophanes' Clouds, in particular the comic door-knocking scenes in either work Teaching Good Virtues in Protagoras Dr. Sobhi Rayan1 Abstract Plato, Protagoras 1. Introduction This article discusses the subject of moral virtues the discussion is related to the policy of the city, they share all the citizens including carpenters, smiths.
Plato's shorter ethical works show Socrates at work on topics related to virtue, which he believes we should seek for the sake of the soul as we should seek health for the body.
Works in this group shows stylistic as well as philosophic affinities and are generally considered to have been written early in Plato's career.
Introduction: The Structure and Purpose of the Protagoras 1. The Theme of the Protagoras efficient route to politics in the instruction of Protagoras, just as Plato saw a direct route to yet denies that the virtues are closely related to wisdom or.
Apr 09, · In one of Plato’s most noted texts, Socrates meets Protagoras, with whom he disagrees on whether political virtue can be taught. Socrates says it cannot, and as evidence for this he points out that at the public forum anyone can take the lead, no matter whether he is a worker, an iron forger, a sailor, rich or poor.
If one pays closer attention to Plato’s entire Corpus, especially significant portions of his metaphysics, one can’t help but consider that Plato did in fact believe in original sin (though of course not in the Christian sense.) Plato asserts that knowledge is virtue, and placed the other virtues (courage, justice, etc.) beneath knowledge.
Protagoras is a dialogue by Plato. The traditional subtitle is "or the Sophists". The main argument is between the elderly Protagoras, a celebrated Sophist, and Socrates. The discussion takes place at the home of Callias, who is host to Protagoras while he is in town, and concerns the nature of Sophists, the unity and the teachability of virtue.
A total of twenty-one people are named as present.