International relations of the Great Powers — The American Revolution —83 and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America around ended the first era of European imperialism. Especially in Great Britain these revolutions helped show the deficiencies of mercantilismthe doctrine of economic competition for finite wealth which had supported earlier imperial expansion. Inthe Corn Laws were repealed and manufacturers gained, as the regulations enforced by the Corn Laws had slowed their businesses.
The New Imperialism c. The foreign counterpart to this phenomenon was the New Imperialism.
The Great Powers of Europe suddenly shook off almost a century of apathy toward overseas colonies and, in the space of 20 years, partitioned almost the entire uncolonized portion of the globe. Theories postulating Europe's need to export surplus capital do not fit the facts. Only Britain and France were capital-exporting countries inand in years to come their investors preferred to export capital to other European countries especially Russia or the Western Hemisphere rather than to their own colonies.
The British remained free-trade throughout the era of the New Imperialism, a booming home economy absorbed most German capital, and Italy and Russia were large net importers of capital.
Once the scramble for colonies was complete, pressure groups did form in the various countries to argue the economic promise of imperialism, but just as often governments had to foster colonial development.
In most cases, trade did not lead but followed the flag. Why, then, was the flag planted in the first place? Sometimes it was to protect economic interests, as when the British occupied Egypt inbut more often it was for strategic reasons or in pursuit of national prestige.
One necessary condition for the New Imperialism, often overlooked, is technological. Prior to the s Europeans could overawe native peoples along the coasts of Africa and Asia but lacked the firepower, mobility, and communications that would have been needed to pacify the interior.
India was the exception, where the British East India Company exploited an anarchic situation and allied itself with selected native rulers against others.
The correlation of forces between Europe and the colonizable world shifted, however, with the invention of shallow-draft riverboats, the steamship and telegraph, the repeater rifle and Maxim gun, and the discovery in India that quinine is an effective prophylactic against malaria.
By small groups of European regulars, armed with modern weapons and exercising fire discipline, could overwhelm many times their number of native troops.
The scramble for Africa should be dated, not fromwhen the British occupied Egypt, but from the opening of the Suez Canal in The strategic importance of that waterway cannot be overstated. It was the gateway to India and East Asia and hence a vital interest nonpareil for the British Empire.
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, otherwise an adamant anticolonialist, then established a British protectorate in Egypt. When the French reacted bitterly, Bismarck further encouraged French colonial expansion in hopes of distracting them from Europe, and he then took his own country into the fray by claiming four large segments of Africa for Germany in In that year the King of the Belgians cast his eye on the entire Congo Basin.
The Berlin West Africa Conference of was called to settle a variety of disputes involved in European colonial occupation, and over the next 10 years all the Great Powers of Europe save Austria and Russia staked out colonies and protectorates on the African continent.
But whatever the ambitions and rivalries of military adventurers, explorers, and private empire-builders on the scene, the cabinets of Europe came to agreements on colonial boundaries with surprising neighbourliness.
Colonial wars did ensue afterbut never between two European colonial powers.“The White Man’s Burden”: Kipling’s Hymn to U.S.
Imperialism. In February , British novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem entitled “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.”. In Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, imperialism was present and growing.
The main countries involved in the imperialism in Africa were the French, German, and Great Britain.
|British Imperialism in South Africa by Aubrey Tennant on Prezi||The Scramble for Africa ss: Canary Islands and the Azores settled by the Portuguese.|
The French’s empire was mainly in North and West Africa while Britain’s colonies were scattered throughout the continent. During the nineteenth century the struggle towards nationalism, or establishment of political union on a basis of nationality, was a dominant factor alike in dynastic movements and as an inner motive in the life of masses of population.
South Africa Table of Contents Minerals and the Growth of Boer-British Antipathy. British pressures on the Dutch-speaking population of the South African Republic became intense . In defence of cultural imperialism Let me say something shocking: Many traditional cultures need to die.
Or at least, the compulsory aspects of traditional cultures need to die. Traditional cultures are, along with communism, probably the major source of violence and oppression in the world monstermanfilm.comsly we don't want languages, art, literature, music, cuisine and other cultural forms to die.
By , British Colonies in South Africa produced 1/3 of the world's gold. The British gained money because they "rented" out the land containing the gold and diamonds to miners.
Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd, (Prime Minister of .