Executive Summary Hamas is an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood that emerged in the Gaza Strip in the late s, during the first Palestinian intifada uprising against Israel. SinceHamas claims to have severed its ties to the Brotherhood.
Matrix management This organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies.
One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field. The other direction is "executive" and tries to get projects completed using the experts.
Projects might be organised by products, regions, customer types, or some other schemes. As an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, and another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc.
Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. Pyramids or hierarchical[ edit ] A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation.
This arrangement is often associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure.
So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principlea book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence.
Organizational theory In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociologyeconomics political sciencepsychologymanagementand organisational communication. The broader analysis of organisations is commonly referred to as organisational structureorganisational studiesorganisational behaviouror organisation analysis.
A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used.
From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context. From a process-related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being re- organised, and the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions.
Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity ; specific institutions serve a functionakin to the individual organs of a coherent body.
In the social and political sciences in general, an "organisation" may be more loosely understood as the planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product. This action is usually framed by formal membership and form institutional rules.
Sociology distinguishes the term organisation into planned formal and unplanned informal i. Sociology analyses organisations in the first line from an institutional perspective. In this sense, organisation is an enduring arrangement of elements. These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated division of labour.
Economic approaches to organisations also take the division of labour as a starting point. The division of labour allows for economies of specialisation. Increasing specialisation necessitates coordination. From an economic point of view, markets and organisations are alternative coordination mechanisms for the execution of transactions.
By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organisation is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements. The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the degrees of freedom of the elements.
Advantages of organisations are enhancement more of the sameaddition combination of different features and extension. Disadvantages can be inertness through co-ordination and loss of interaction. Among the theories that are or have been influential are: Activity theory is the major theoretical influence, acknowledged by de Clodomir Santos de Morais in the development of Organisation Workshop method.
Actor—network theoryan approach to social theory and research, originating in the field of science studies, which treats objects as part of social networks. Complexity theory and organisationsthe use of complexity theory in the field of strategic management and organisational studies. Contingency theorya class of behavioural theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions.
Critical management studiesa loose but extensive grouping of theoretically informed critiques of management, business, and organisation, grounded originally in a critical theory perspective Economic sociologystudies both the social effects and the social causes of various economic phenomena.
Enterprise architecturethe conceptual model that defines the coalescence of organisational structure and organisational behaviour. Garbage Can Modeldescribes a model which disconnects problems, solutions and decision makers from each other. Principal—agent problemconcerns the difficulties in motivating one party the "agent"to act in the best interests of another the "principal" rather than in his or her own interests Scientific management mainly following Frederick W.
Taylora theory of management that analyses and synthesises workflows. Social entrepreneurshipthe process of pursuing innovative solutions to social problems.NSF January 29, Chapter II - Proposal Preparation Instructions.
Each proposing organization that is new to NSF or has not had an active NSF assistance award within the previous five years should be prepared to submit basic organization and management information and certifications, when requested, to the applicable award-making division within the Office of Budget.
Get the latest health news, diet & fitness information, medical research, health care trends and health issues that affect you and your family on monstermanfilm.com Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human .
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