History[ edit ] The term "fine chemicals" was in use as early as  The emergence of the fine chemical industry as a distinct entity dates back to the late s, when the overwhelming success of the histamine H2 receptor antagonists Tagamet cimetidine and Zantac ranitidine hydrochloride created a strong demand for advanced organic chemicals used in their manufacturing processes.
Laboratory-wise core competence is as follows: It carries out research in various areas of modern biotechnology and biological sciences such as allergy and infectious diseases, molecular pathogenesis and recombinant DNA technology, while the main focus is on genomics and bioinformatics.
Catalogue of pesticide formulation types and has emerged as one of the leading institutes conducting globally competitive research in Functional Genomics and Genome Informatics for the benefit of human health. Institute of Microbial Technology IMTECH, Chandigarh Basic and application-oriented research in molecular biology and microbial genetics; cell biology and immunology; protein science and engineering; and fermentation technology and applied microbiology.
Central Drug Research Institute CDRI, Lucknow Development of new drugs employing modern technologies of genomics, proteomics and structural biology for target identification, optimization using high throughput screening and combinatorial techniques, in addition to systematic investigation of natural products to develop novel herbal drugs.
Research activities are also focused on designing new vaccines and development of novel tools for molecular detection of diseases based on DNA diagnostic and immunodiagnostic tests. Central Food Technological Research Institute CFTRI, Mysore Development of post-harvest technologies for efficient protection, conservation, and processing of agricultural produce with focus on developing export-oriented value-added products from horticultural and plantation crops.
Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology IHBT, Palampur Establishment, upgradation and sustainable management of bioresources in the Himalayan region through agrotechnology, processing technology and biotechnology.
Indian Institute of Chemical Biology IICB, Kolkata Development of natural products of medicinal, biological and industrial value, besides designing innovative immunoassay techniques, and tissue-targeted drug-delivery systems.
The focus is to understand the mechanism of toxicity at molecular level, including development of biomarkers for assessment of human exposure to chemicals.
In the area of biotechnology, RRL,Jammu has made contribution in fermentation technology and molecular biology leading to cloning of genes and their expression for industrial uses. Regional Research Laboratory, Thiruvananthapuram RRL, Thiruvananthapuram Development of biocatalysts, bioactive compounds, secondary metabolites and other value-added products from microorganisms and plants utilizing the regional resources for various industrial applications with special reference to health care and green technologies.
Stress genomics, gene s of interest from halophytes and other marine species and development of transgenic; Halotolerant Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria — molecular characterization and biotechnological application; Extremophiles - Genomics, Metagenomics; Seaweed Biology, molecular phylogeny, b iodiversity and bioprospecting ; environmental biotechnology - n atural antifouling compounds from marine algae National Chemical Laboratory NCL, Pune Research efforts are geared towards biochemical sciences, nanotechnology, plant tissue culture, bio-organic and bio-mimetic chemistry.
Besides, focus is on micro-propagation of endemic and endangered medicinal plant species, and isolation and heterologous expression of genes for the synthesis of biodegradable polymers.
National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa With the objective of harnessing the ocean wealth, marine biotechnology is an important focus of research.
NIO has expertise in the areas of marine biology, biodiversity, bioorganic chemistry and microbiology. It is actively engaged in the discovery of novel drugs, nutraceuticals, industrial enzymes and other useful products.
Indian Institute of Chemical Technology IICT, Hyderabad High quality basic and applied research in bioinformatics, entomology and toxicology besides developing specialty chemicals, biodiesel and nutraceuticals.
Another variety of the same plant, named Kushal is a high yielding variety having rapid regeneration ability. CIMAP has developed a non-narcotic opium-less and alkaloid free poppy variety called Sujata for the first time in the world.
This could be used as a protein and oil-rich food crop with a high calorie value. RRL-Jammu has developed an improved strain of Jamrosa, which has better oil yield 0.
High artemisinin yielding variety, Jeevanraksha, of Artemisia annua containing up to 1. CIMAP has developed linalool-rich NBRI has developed new varieties of a large number of aromatic, medicinal and economic plant IHBT is a nationally recognized centre for testing tissue culture raised plants against viruses in floriculture crops, and for pesticide residue analysis in tea and herbals.
It has rejuvenated the abandoned tea gardens and helped in improving tea productivity of the region.
Agrotechnologies for rose, wild marigold, gladiolus, lavender, geranium, Stevia, carnation, lilies, chrysanthemum, etc. Besides efficient micropropagation protocols of bamboo, orchids lilies, rose, Podophyllum, Rheum emodi, tea etc.
Several agrichemicals have been obtained from plant sources. A fraction isolated from the essential oil of Mentha viridis has been found helpful in the management of mosquito species and crude ethanolic extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna has been found to be bacteriostatic in nature.
RRL, Jorhat has developed a process for bio-methanation of deoiled Citronella grass by a novel two-phase process consisting of a hydrolysis-acidogenic phase and a methanogenic phase. IICB has identified Tinospora cardifolia as a huge source of saccharifying alpha-amylase in purest form, present in the aqueous extract of the stem.
It has developed a process that involves extraction, isolation and characterization of this enzyme from the plant. The Bkm-derived probe is being extensively used for forensic investigations, paternity testing wild life preservation and management and seed stock verifications.Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce™ offer a good balance between protection from the two types of ultraviolet radiation – UVA and UVB – and don’t often contain potentially harmful additives.
we estimated that 80 percent of products would pass the new test without any changes to their formulations. The European Union sets a. Activities exempt from waste management licensing. Some activities involving waste materials are exempt from licensing if they meet the requirements detailed in Regulation 17 of the Waste Management Licensing (Scotland) Regulations (the “Regulations”).
Governments, in collaboration with employers' and workers' organizations and professional organizations concerned, should design adequate and appropriate policies, programmes and plans of action for the development of occupational health with multidisciplinary content and comprehensive coverage.
Table Number of new registrations of pesticide formulations in China by type of formulation, Table Number of new registrations of 30 most registered single pesticide formulations in China, An additional factor can be the presence of impurities in the pesticide formulation but that are not part of the active ingredient.
A recent example is the case of TFM, a lampricide used in tributaries of the Great Lakes for many years for the control of the sea lamprey.
Following the manufacture of a pesticide technical material (active ingredient, a.i., active substance a.s.) the manufacturer must prepare a formulation to ensure that it .